Documentation:Tutorial Section 5

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                          Version 3, 19 November 2007
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Note: please do not send bug reports or technical support requests to this address. Use our forums or bugtracker for technical support or bug reports.

Via postal mail:

The following postal address is only for official business. Please note that it is preferred that initial queries about licensing be made via email; postal mail should only be used when email is not possible, or when written documents are being exchanged by prior arrangement.

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer Pty. Ltd.
    PO Box 407
    Victoria 3016

Support Library Licenses

Licenses for Support Libraries used by POV-Ray


Copyright © 2004, Industrial Light & Magic, a division of Lucasfilm Entertainment Company Ltd. Portions contributed and copyright held by others as indicated. All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  • Neither the name of Industrial Light & Magic nor the names of any other contributors to this software may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.


Citing POV-Ray in Academic Publications

To reference POV-Ray (e.g. in academic papers), you may use one of the below:

Note: The year should be replaced with the year of your publication.

  Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd. (2013)
    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (Version 3.7)
    [Computer software].
      Retrieved from


  Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd. (2013).
  Persistence of Vision (TM) Raytracer.
  Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd., Williamstown, Victoria, Australia.

The POV-Team

Primary POV-Ray 3.7 Core Architects/Developers: (alphabetically)

Chris Cason
Developer 1993-, team leader 1999-, Windows version, SMP implementation, mesh camera, BSP bounding, too many other contributions to list here
Thorsten Fröhlich
Developer 1996-, Mac developer, frontend-backend messaging system, SMP implementation, too many other contributions to list here
Christoph Lipka
Developer 2009-, core code improvements notably radiosity, gamma handling, sslt and too many others to list

With Assistance From: (alphabetically)

Nicolas Calimet
UNIX development
Jérôme Grimbert
Mapping warps, image meta-data, the ovus object, several list patterns, additional render block items, and other core code contributions.
James Holsenback
3.7 documentation, POV-Wiki, various Unix/Linux, and scene file contributions
Christoph Hormann
UNIX development
Nathan Kopp
Photons, u/v mapping, other contributions
Juha Nieminen
area_illumination, cubic pattern and cubic warp, fractal patterns, other contributions

Past POV-Team Members and other Note-Worthy Contributors: (alphabetically)

Claire Amundsen
Tutorials for the POV-Ray User Guide
Steve Anger
POV-Ray 2.0/3.0 developer
Randy Antler
MS-Dos display code enhancements
John Baily
RLE targa code
Eric Barish
Ground fog code
Thomas Baier
3.1 team member, tester
Dieter Bayer
Wrote sor, lathe, prism, media and many other features
Anthony Bennett
Scene files, documentation
Kendall Bennett
PMODE library support, paletted display code in Windows version
Steve Bennett
GIF support
Thomas Bily
Implicit and parametric surfaces
Dale C. Brodin
Alpha & Beta tester, forum support
Eric Brown
no_image, no_reflection, orient and circular area_light
Matthew Corey Brown
pigment function, warps, projected_through
David Buck
Original author of DKBTrace, POV-Ray 1.0 developer
Edward Coffey
Aaron Collins
Co-author of DKBTrace 2.12, POV-Ray 1.0 developer
Chris Dailey
POV-Ray 3.0 developer
Steve Demlow
POV-Ray 3.0 developer
Andreas Dilger
Former Unix coordinator, Linux developer, PNG support
Joris van Drunen Littel
Mac beta tester
Alexander Enzmann
POV-Ray 1.0/2.0/3.0 developer
Dan Farmer
POV-Ray 1.0/2.0/3.0 developer, author of many features, sample scenes, and textures
Daniel Fenner
Hans-Detlev Fink
Slope pattern
Charles Fusner
Blob, lathe and prism tutorial tutorials for the POV-Ray User Guide
Mark Gordon
Unix developer
David Harr
Mac balloon help and palette code
Michael Hazelgrove
Scene files
Jimmy Hoeks
Original Help file for v3.0 Windows user interface
Christoph Hormann
Scene & include files, documentation, insert menu
Chris Huff
Object pattern, Interior texture, inverse transform
Bob Hughes
Scene and include files, insert menu
Ingo Janssen
Scene & include files, documentation
Mike Hough
Spherical camera, Media method 2, uv_mapping for bicubic_patch
Rune S. Johansen
Scene & include files, documentation
Greg M. Johnson
Scene files
Terry Kanakis
Camera fix
Kari Kivisalo
Ground fog code
Alan Kong
Alpha & Beta tester, forum support
Lutz Kretzschmar
Moray author, MS-DOS 24-bit VGA, part of the anti-aliasing code
Tor Olav Kristensen
Scene files
Jochen Lippert
Friedrich Lohmülller
Version 3.7 scene file clean-up and Windows insert menus.
Charles Marslett
MS-Dos display code
Pascal Massimino
Fractal objects
Jim McElhiney
POV-Ray 3.0 developer
Robert A. Mickelsen
Artist, 3.0 docs contributor
Mike Miller
Artist, scene files,
Fabien Mosen
Scene & include files
Douglas Muir
Bump maps, height fields
Joel Newkirk
Former Amiga developer
Jim Nitchals
Mac version, scene files (Jim - famous also for his anti-spam crusades - passed away on 5 June 1998 but his contributions to POV-Ray and responsible use of the internet will not be forgotten)
Paul Novak
Texture contributions
Wolfgang Ortmann
Dave Park
Amiga support, AGA video code
Redaelli Paolo
Former Amiga developer
Ron Parker
Core code, jack-of-all-trades
David Payne
RLE targa code
Ansgar Philippsen
Smooth color triangle
Jaime Vives Piqueres
Mesh camera scene files
Bill Pulver
Time code
Anton Raves
Alpha & Beta tester, Mac contributor
Dan Richardson
3.0 Docs
Tim Rowley
PPM and Windows-specific BMP image format support
Eduard Schwan
Former Mac version coordinator, mosaic preview, docs
Daniel Skarda
Implicit and parametric surfaces
Wlodzimierz Skiba
Windows BMP file support, non-Microsoft compiler build support for POVWIN versions prior to 3.7, bug fixes
Robert Skinner
Noise functions
Yvo & René Smellenbergh
Clock & Image_size keywords
Erkki Sondergaard
Alpha & Beta tester, 3.0 Scene files
Ryoichi Suzuki
Zsolt Szalavari
Halo code which was later turned into media
Scott Taylor
Leopard and onion textures
Gilles Tran
Scene files
Massimo Valentini
Optimizations to sphere_sweep and superellipsoid, bug fixes.
John VanSickle
Cells pattern
Mark Wagner
Timothy Wegner
Fractal objects, PNG support
Drew Wells
POV-Ray 1.0 developer, POV-Ray 1.0 team coordinator
Daren Scot Wilson
Chris Young
Team leader 1992-1999, parser code, other contributions too numerous to list here

Contacting the Authors

The POV-Team is a collection of volunteer programmers, designers, animators and artists meeting via the internet at The POV-Team's goal is to create freely distributable, high quality rendering and animation software written in C++ that can be easily ported to many different computers. If you have any questions about POV-Ray, please visit our web site for the latest contact information, or see the online version of POVLEGAL for the current team coordinators address (this changes from time to time whenever too many email spammers harvest the address).

If you have a question regarding commercial use or distribution of POV-Ray, please contact Chris Cason, the development team coordinator, via the above method. Please do not email us directly for technical support - use the below-mentioned forums. We generally do not answer emails requesting support if the sender has not first asked in the forums or read the documentation.

See our web site and particularly our forums for online peer support. The forums have a bug reporting group; please however discuss the issue in the povray.general group prior to lodging a bug report as we may already know of the issue (or it might not even be a bug).

Questions and Tips What to do if you don't have POV-Ray

This document is protected, so submissions, corrections and discussions should be held on this documents talk page.